This analysis is inspired by Democratic Studies, which since 1989 have questioned the role of elites - understood as holders of political, economic, intellectual, military, administrative power - in the process of political transition. For John Higley and Jan Pakulski, the degree of fragmentation and differentiation of the elites, as well as their mobility, constitute the major mechanisms of the transitional process. This model makes it possible to renew the reading of the transition between Revolution, Empire and Restoration, undertaken here using the case of the Comte de Montlosier (1755-1838). He was convinced very early of the need to establish a corps dedicated to State service to stabilize the regime ; in his theoretical reflections no less than in his trajectory, he defended the idea of a nobility open in its recruitment, specialized in the high civil service, while the bourgeoisie would devote itself to trade and industry. The specialization of the elites would, in his opinion, allow the restoration of a moderate monarchy, ensure its stability, and restore social cohesion. This position, which was to allow the nobility to survive in post-Revolutionary society, gives meaning to Montlosier’s successive stances, between monarchy, emigration, Consulate, Empire and Restoration.